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Keep an eye out on my twitter feed ColePepper. It is said that the descendants of this family still continue in these neighborhoods, and that they are easy to be recognized by their light and fair complexion. One of them was particularly cheerful as he jumped around the fire, singing: Webarchive template wayback links All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from January CS1 errors: Impute my mistake to ignorance. Retrieved on August 20, Some non-purpose-built items have been used by law enforcement over the centuries as impact weapons.

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The original PTT service was sunset. In March , Cingular announced that these networks would be shut down by February Velocita was later purchased by Sprint Nextel. Project Genesis was completed by the end of During the first quarter of , Telephia reported that during an extensive nationwide test of major wireless carriers in metropolitan markets around the country, Cingular dropped the fewest number of calls across the country.

In turn, Cingular began aggressively advertising the "Allover Network", citing Telephia as "the leading independent research company. Power and Associates consistently ranked Cingular at or near the bottom of every geographical region in its Wireless Call Quality Study, which is based on a smaller survey of 23, wireless users. This campaign had to come to an abrupt end. Telephia, which tests wireless networks by making over 6 million calls per year in what it claims is the world's largest wireless network test program, initially refused to provide details on its study, and a spokesman for the company has said, according to the Boston Globe , that "Cingular shouldn't have even mentioned the company's name to a reporter.

That campaign is continuing. The iPhone 4 was released on June 24, According to Apple, over 1. These plans included Unlimited Voice and Texting access, while data usage was on a tier-based structure with various overage rates.

These were succeeded by the Mobile Share Advantage plans in , where instead of overage charges, were 2G data speeds are enacted also known as throttling.

This requirement was later dropped. NumberSync was introduced in NASCAR quickly claimed that a clause in their contract with Sprint Nextel would not allow Cingular to change either the name or brand advertised on the 31 car. The appeals court remanded the case to the district court. At first practice for the Sharpie at Bristol Motor Speedway on August 24, the 31 car was colored orange and black, but was bare; that is, associate sponsors appeared, but no primary sponsors were on the car, similar to Formula One cars run in races where tobacco advertising is prohibited.

The pit crew wore grey Richard Childress Racing shirts and Burton had a plain orange fire suit with associate sponsors. The car, which carried a "subliminal advertising" scheme, arrived in a black hauler with only the number 31 on the side. The Go Phone scheme had been used in the past. Childress is a part-owner of this team. The company has claimed that, despite its claim of network speeds, it is within its legal rights to reduce the speed of data to consumers who reach preset thresholds.

In May , Matt Spaccarelli, a truck driver, won a small claims lawsuit against the company for slowing down his service. The fee appears "below the line" making it appear like a tax at the bottom of a customer's phone bill. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cingular Wireless was founded in Retrieved June 9, Retrieved October 24, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 20, Archived from the original on January 6, Retrieved February 9, Retrieved May 14, Archived from the original on October 26, Retrieved July 25, The New York Times.

Retrieved March 20, Retrieved August 31, Archived from the original on January 25, Retrieved May 15, Archived from the original on October 11, Archived from the original on July 16, The truncheon acted as the policeman's ' Warrant Card ' as the Royal Crest attached to it indicated the policeman's authority.

This was always removed when the equipment left official service often with the person who used it. The Victorian original has since developed into the several varieties available today. The typical truncheon is a straight stick made from wood or a synthetic material, approximately 1. Truncheons are often ornamented with their organizations' coats of arms. Longer truncheons are called "riot batons" because of their use in riot control. Straight batons of rubber have a softer impact.

Some of the kinetic energy bends and compresses the rubber and bounces off when the object is struck. Rubber batons are not very effective when used on the subject's arms or legs, and can still cause injury if the head is struck. That is why most police departments have stopped issuing them. The Russian police standard-issue baton is rubber, except in places such as Siberia , where it can be cold enough that the rubber may become brittle and break if struck.

The traffic baton is red to make it more visible as a signaling aid in directing traffic. In Russia traffic batons are striped in black and white for the same reason, and in Sweden they are white. Until the mids, British police officers carried traditional wooden truncheons of a sort that had changed little from Victorian times.

Since the late s, the collapsible baton is issued except for public order duties, where a fixed, acrylic baton is used.

Side-handled batons were issued for a while, but fell out of favour. In New York , the police used to use two kinds of batons depending on the time. The night-stick was longer so it could provide extra protection which was thought to be necessary at night. Before the s, the most common use of the police baton was to "brain" suspects strike their heads with a full-force overhand motion in order to stun them or knock them unconscious by cerebral concussion , similar to the pre-baton practice of buffaloing with the barrel of a revolver.

However, this practice was both unreliable and occasionally lethal: As a result, civil lawsuits and claims of police brutality resulted in revised training for officers. In modern police training [ where? The primary targets now are large nerve clusters, such as the common peroneal nerve in the mid-thigh and large, easily targetable muscle groups, such as the quadriceps and biceps.

The approved method of swinging the baton has also changed, with the full-force "bludgeoning" strike being proscribed in non-life critical circumstances and replaced with a lighter sidearm "whipping" motion in which only the tip of the baton actually strikes the target.

Taken together, these changes are intended to produce compliance by transitory neurapraxia temporary muscle pain, spasm and paralysis due to nerve injury instead of the bone fractures and cerebral concussion which characterized their earlier use. Hand-held impact weapons have some advantages over newer less-lethal weapons. Batons are less expensive than Tasers to buy or to use, and carry none of the risk of cross-contamination of OC aerosol canisters such as pepper spray in confined areas in houses, if police use pepper spray, the officers may get the spray in their eyes accidentally.

Tasers and OC canisters have limited ammunition, whereas batons use none. Like Tasers and pepper spray, batons are referred to as "less-lethal" rather than "non-lethal". These weapons are not designed to be fatal, but they can be. Suspects have died due to allergic reactions to pepper spray, blood clots from baton strikes, fatalities due to being struck on the head by batons, or heart stoppage after being shocked by a Taser.

As with all police weapons, there is a risk that a suspect may disarm the officer and use the baton against the officer. Batons in common use by police around the world include many different designs, such as fixed-length straight batons, blackjacks, fixed-length side-handle batons, collapsible straight batons, and other more exotic variations. All types have their advantages and disadvantages.

The design and popularity of specific types of baton have evolved over the years and are influenced by a variety of factors. These include inherent compromises in the dual and competing goals of control effectiveness and safety for both officer and subject. A straight, fixed-length baton also commonly referred to as a "straightstick" is the oldest and simplest police baton design, known as far back as ancient Egypt.

They are often made of hardwood, but in modern times are available in other materials such as aluminium, acrylic, and dense plastics and rubber.

Straightsticks tend to be heavier and have more weight concentrated in the striking end than other designs. This makes them less maneuverable, but theoretically would deliver more kinetic energy on impact. Most agencies have replaced the straightstick with other batons because of inconvenience to carry, and a desire for their officers to look less threatening to the community they serve.

Despite having been replaced by side-handle and expandable batons in many if not most law enforcement agencies, straightsticks remain in use by many major departments in the US, such as the Baltimore , Denver , Sacramento , Long Beach , Santa Ana , Philadelphia , San Francisco , and Riverside Police Departments.

Side-handle batons sometimes referred to as T-batons or nightsticks are batons with a short side handle at a right angle to the shaft, about six inches from one end. The best-known example is the Monadnock PR; "PR" has become a genericized trademark within the law enforcement and security communities for this type of product. Side-handle batons are made in both fixed and collapsible models and may be constructed from a range of materials including wood, poly-carbonate, epoxy, aluminium, or a combination of materials.

Some side-handle batons are one-piece design; the side-handle component and primary shaft are permanently fused together during manufacturing. One-piece designs are potentially stronger than two-piece designs, and have no risk of having a locking screw loosen from its threads.

Other side-handle batons are two-piece in design common among cheaper makes ; the side-handle component is screwed into the primary shaft. The side handle may be removed from the shaft by the end-user, converting the side-handle into a straight baton. Side-handle batons have been involved in high-profile incidents of alleged police brutality , such as in New Zealand's Springbok Tour [5] [6] and the Rodney King beating.

An expandable baton also referred to variously as a collapsible baton , telescopic [or telescoping ] baton , tactical baton , spring cosh , ASP , Extendable , or extendo [slang] is typically composed of a cylindrical outer shaft containing telescoping inner shafts typically 2 or 3, depending on the design that lock into each other when expanded.

The shafts are usually made of steel, but lightweight baton models may have their shafts made from other materials such as aluminium alloy. Expandable batons may have a solid tip at the outer end of the innermost shaft; the purpose of the solid tip is to maximize the power of a strike when the baton is used as an impact weapon. Expandable batons are made in both straight and side-handle configurations, but are considerably more common in the straight configuration.

The mother did not like him either, but that did not stop her from accepting his presents. One day he returned, again with many costly things, but this time the mother said, "You are not going to get my daughter, no matter how many presents you bring. Earlier you accepted my presents, and I want to be paid for them. I will return tomorrow at noon. If by then you know my name, then you may keep your daughter, otherwise I will take her by force!

Great concern now ruled the cowherd's household. Now the shepherd's son, while watching over his sheep in the forest, had often seen the dwarf, but every time he had approached him, the dwarf had disappeared. On this day he was watching over his sheep in the vicinity of a cave, and this was the dwarf's cave.

The shepherd stood there, leaning on his staff, when suddenly the dwarf came by, as though he were being driven through the forest by a windstorm, and he disappeared into the cave. At the cave's entrance there was a yellow flower that the shepherd's son had often admired because of its unusual color and shape.

Before entering the cave, the dwarf had touched the flower. A loud sound came from within the cave. The shepherd's son listened, and he heard the dwarf sing: If the mother knew that, She could keep her daughter. The shepherd's son took note of the name, because it seemed so very unusual to him. That evening when he visited his sweetheart, and noticed her concern, he told her everything that had happened, and comforted her. The mother repeated the name over and over again until it came easily to her, and now they were no longer fearful about the dwarf's return.

The next day at noon he appeared as announced. He stepped up to the mother and said sarcastically, "Now my dear lady, do you know my name? The shepherd's son married the cowherd's daughter, and they lived long and happy lives together. However, she could never complete her work. Then one day a man came to her who promised her that he would spin the flax for her every day if she could guess his name.

But the girl could not guess his name. Then the man went away and turned himself into a bird. Flying happily back and forth it cried out:. The man answered, "A bad person told you that! He was scarcely three spans tall. He often ran around dressed in only a shirt, which angered the people, but otherwise he did not get in their way. On the contrary did them many favors. He cut straw for them, tended their cows, and helped them with work at home and in the field. He also provided the sick with healing herbs and rescued many children from death.

One time a beautiful peasant girl was gored by a steer. She screamed aloud and called for help. The friendly elf came immediately, comforted her, and promised to help and rescue her, if she would marry him and go with him to the elf kingdom. She had no choice but to say yes, and upon her agreement the elf rescued her. Now she was supposed to go with the dwarf into the mountain, but she did not at all want to.

She therefore asked the elf if he would not release her, promising him a beautiful red jacket if he would do so. The dwarf said, "I can easily get a red jacket. However, if you can guess my name within three days, you shall be released from you promise. She thought the entire night about the dwarf's name, but it did not come to her. The next day the girl went out to the sand hill where the elf stayed.

She said all kinds of names, but none was the right one, and the dwarf said, "Go home and think about it some more. The girl returned home and thought day and night about what the little man's name might be. The following day she went out to the sand hill again, where she found the dwarf.

Then she said many, many names, but none was the right one. So the girl, with her head hanging, returned home sad and dejected. She had given up hope of guessing the dwarf's name. But where the need is greatest, there help will come the soonest. A peasant boy was working near the sand hill, and at noontime he lay down behind the brush to rest. The girl was now happy beyond measure and no longer had any fears or concerns.

Early in the morning of the following day she went up to the sand hill. She took a red jacket for the dwarf, for she wanted to give him something for rescuing her.

When the tiny little man saw her coming he was filled with joy, and said, "Now tell me, what is my name? Then the dwarf began to cry and to moan, and carrying the jacket he went out into the woods. Since that hour he has not been seen again, and no one knows where he went. The girl agreed to this proposal, thinking that he was not serious. Brockhaus, , no. Iserlohn is a city in the German province Nordrhein-Westfalen.

Zirkzirk Germany Once there was a woman who did not want to do any spinning. Her husband often scolded her for not accomplishing anything. Saddened by this, she was walking along thinking about her situation when suddenly a dwarf appeared before her. He asked her what was wrong with her and if he could not help her. She told him everything, and the dwarf said that he would help her if she would give him what she was carrying under her apron.

However, if she could guess his name then she would not need to give him anything. The woman did not think about this very long before saying yes, for she did not believe that she had anything under her apron. From that time onward she always had yarn enough, and every Saturday when her husband came to see what she had done, there was always an abundance. She was happy and satisfied, but before long all this changed, for she was about to deliver a child, and she now realized what the dwarf had meant.

Filled with grief, she told her husband everything. One day when he was walking over a mountain he heard the humming of a spinning wheel from within the mountain, and a dwarf singing: It is good that the honorable lady does not know that Zirkzirk is my name.

He joyfully returned home and reported this to his wife. After she delivered her child the dwarf appeared to her, in order to collect that which had been promised to him.

She told him what his name was, and he never again returned. Purzinigele Austria Ages ago, in olden times, there lived a powerful count. All the lands far and wide belonged to him, and he had everything that his heart desired. He shared his wealth and his happiness with a good wife, who was as beautiful as the day and as dear as an angel. They had lived together happily together for several months, and the days seemed to them to be as short as minutes. One day the count was out hunting and went deeper and deeper into the forest.

In the heat of the hunt he went further than ever before, and he became separated a good distance from the rest of his party. As he stood there alone in the forest, a dwarf suddenly appeared before him. The little forest dweller was only three feet tall, and his full beard reached his knees.

Angrily he rolled his fiery red eyes and said, "What are you doing here? This is my realm, and you must pay a penalty to me. If you do not give me your wife, you shall not leave this forest alive. His old nurse had told him these stories when he was but a child. What was he to do? This was a critical situation. The frightened count did not know how to escape other than to try to beg and talk his way out. I did not know that it was yours, and I will certainly never do it again.

Either you or she. I will give you both one month's time. If she is able, in three attempts, to guess my name then she shall be yours and free -- otherwise she shall belong to me.

He made his way toward home, accompanied by the little man of the forest. Both were serious, and neither spoke a word. After they had gone some distance they came to an ancient gray-bearded fir tree. The dwarf stopped here and said, "This is the boundary of my realm. I will await your wife here at this fir tree, which is nine times older than the other trees.

Three times she may have three guesses! But if you do not keep your word it will go badly for both of you. As he approached the gate, the countess, who had seen him from her window, came out to meet him. She was filled with joy and happiness, for her husband was home again. But she soon noticed that he was not happy, as he usually was, but instead looked like seven days of rainy weather.

This made her sad and concerned, and she asked the count what was wrong with him. As soon as they entered the castle and were in the sitting room, the tired and sad count told her how he had met the dwarf and how he had wanted take the countess, and what conditions he had at last agreed to. When the countess heard this, she became as pale as a corpse, and her beautiful, fine cheeks were wet with tears.

Happiness and joy had now disappeared from the castle, and everyone there became silent and sad. The countess most often sat in an alcove thinking and thinking how short her happiness had been, or she went to the castle chapel where she prayed and cried.

The count no longer went out hunting nor to the jousting matches but sat instead on his old chair, richly decorated with carvings, on which his ancestors had also sat. Supporting his head with his right hand, he contemplated, but he himself did not know about what. Thus passed day after day and week after week, until finally there were three days left in the month. The count and countess went out into the forest, then further and further until they could see the old gray-bearded fir tree in the distance.

The count stayed behind, and the countess proceeded alone. Otherwise it was beautiful in the forest. The birds were singing; the squirrels were jumping about or sitting there splitting pine cones; and the wild roses were blossoming so beautifully white and red. But the countess had a heavy heart as never before, and she sadly walked on until she came to the fir tree.

The dwarf, beautifully dressed in green and red, was waiting for her. A mischievous pleasure overcame him when he saw the countess, for she pleased him greatly. Then the countess guessed, "Fir, Spruce, Pine," because she thought that for living in the forest he would certainly have the name of a tree.

The dwarf had hardly heard this when he broke out laughing and rejoicing until the entire forest resounded. Otherwise you will become my wife! The dwarf stood there and smiled at her, taking pleasure in her grief. She soon found her husband, and told him how she had guessed so badly. They returned to their castle even sadder than they had left. The rest of the day passed too fast, although it was a sad one.

Evening was soon there, and night followed quickly. It was a sad and hopeless night, and neither sleep nor dreams entered the count's room. When the first larks began to sing the next morning, the count and countess were already up and concerned about their plight. They went to the castle chapel to pray, and afterward went out into the dark green forest, then further and deeper until they saw the old gray-bearded fir tree in the distance.

The count stayed behind and the countess proceeded alone. Otherwise it was beautiful out there in the forest. The birds were singing; the flowers were laughing and giving off their sweet scent; the squirrels were standing up like little men.

But the countess had a heavy heart as never before, and with tears in her eyes she walked on until she came to the fir tree. She had scarcely arrived there when the little man of the forest walked up, dressed beautifully in blue and red. Then the countess guessed, "Oat, Buckwheat, Maize," for she thought that he might have the name of a grain. The little elf had hardly heard this when he broke out laughing and rejoicing until the entire forest resounded. The dwarf stood there impishly smiling at her.

She soon found her husband, and told him how badly she had done. They returned to their castle even more gloomily than they had left. The rest of the day passed under a shadow of sorrow. Evening was there before they realized it, and the dark night followed quickly. It was again a sad night, in which neither the count nor the countess closed their eyes.

As morning dawned, the count and countess were already up. They went to the castle chapel and prayed fervently. Then they went out into the beautiful green forest. It was still early, early in the morning, and many of the birds were still lying asleep in their nests. Only the brooks were rustling and murmuring, and the morning breezes were whispering through the tree branches. Otherwise it was quiet -- as quiet as in a church.

The count and countess walked until they saw the old gray-bearded fir tree in the distance. There the count kissed his beautiful countess, and a tear dropped onto his beard, for he did not know if he would ever see her again. The countess, however was more composed today, and her heart was not beating as quickly as it had done on the earlier occasions. She said good-bye to her husband and walked toward the fir tree. All soul alone, she stood there next to the old tree, but the dwarf was nowhere to be seen.

On either side there were wild rosebushes, and they made a beautiful fence. She walked along the path and soon came to a beautiful little valley. The most beautiful flowers were there, with vineyards and fig trees growing on the hillsides.

In the middle of the field stood a neat little cottage. Its little windows glistened happily in the morning sunshine. Blue smoke curled upward from the little chimney, and a song sounded from within. The countess forgot her pain and grief when she saw the little valley and the cottage. She crept up and, on tip-toes, looked inside the window to see if it was as beautiful inside as it was outside.

She saw a lovely little kitchen, with things cooking and frying in pots and pans. The little man of the forest was standing at the hearth, first tending to one thing and then to another, at the same time singing with a smiling mouth: Boil my oats, bubble my cabbage; It is good that Lady Countess does not know That Purzinigele is my name. The countess had heard enough.

She crept away and hurried back to the fir tree, so that the dwarf would not overtake her. Joyfully standing there, she could almost not wait for the dwarf to arrive. It was not long before the little man arrived. Today he was dressed even more beautifully than before. His clothing was embroidered with red and gold, and it glistened like a sunrise. You have two guesses left! With that the dwarf blushed a little and seemed to pause and think. Then he said, "Guess quickly! You have one more chance.

Upon hearing his name, the dwarf angrily rolled his fiery red eyes, clenched his fists tightly, then grumbling disappeared into the thicket. The freed countess hurried back to the place where the count was impatiently waiting for her. There was such joy when the two found one another again. To the joy of their people, the count and countess returned to their castle. They lived there many, many years as the happiest couple that anyone ever knew.

And what became of Purzinigele? He was so angry that he ran away, and was never seen again. Verlag der Wagner'schen Buchhandlung, , no.

Concerning the countess's second guess on her last day: The word for goat in German is "Ziege," which approximates the second part of Purzinigele's name. This explains why he blushes and pauses to think after hearing the countess's first two guesses on the last day. She was not an ugly girl, but she had the flaw that she was always too smart for her own good and that she would rather eat and be lazy than work. Such daughters bring little joy to their mothers, and so it was here as well.

The daughter could do nothing right for her mother, who for an entire year never stopped scolding her. Once the mother left early for the field, telling the daughter, who was still in bed, "Near noontime cook some soup and put a couple of kernels of rice in it so there will be something for me to eat when I get home. Now "a couple" was a common way of saying "not too much and not too little," but the girl did not understand that. She put a kettle of water on the fire, picked out two kernels of rice and threw them in.

What a soup that was when the mother arrived home! She scolded, but to no avail. She had to pour out the water and make her own soup, if she wanted anything to eat. Then it occurred to her that their donkey, standing in the stall, was named Honest. I'll not get a scolding this time. So she went to the stall, struck the poor donkey dead, and chopped him up in pieces. Then she put a large washtub on the fire, threw the pieces into the water, and let it boil until it was hissing and bubbling.

When the mother arrived home and saw what had happened she was beside herself and began to hit at her daughter with both fists. But that did not bring the poor donkey back to life.

And his meat was so tough that it could not be eaten. So she threw it out to the dogs, and they were only able to eat it only because they were bitterly hungry and had sharp teeth. Later the mother went away again and told the daughter, "For our noon meal cook some mush, but do it right. The daughter cooked a lot of mush, and she herself ate seven dishes full. The eighth dish, the smallest one, she saved for her mother.

When she came home and learned that the girl had already eaten seven dishes of mush, she became angry and began to scold loudly and intensely. At that same moment a distinguished gentleman passed by the house, heard the scolding, and entered. The mother was ashamed and quickly replied, "I am scolding her because she works too much. Today she has spun seven spindles full, and I do not want her to overtire herself. Then the gentleman said, "If that is so, then you can give her to me for my wife.

I want to have a wife who works well, and I shall never find one who is better or more industrious. Mother and daughter agreed happily. The wedding took place, and the gentleman took his young wife home with him.

A few days later he had a large pile of flax brought in and said, "Listen, wife, I will be out hunting the entire day. By tomorrow evening you are to have spun this flax. Then he became angry and repeated to her, "Do you think that I took you for a wife so you would not have to work?

If you want to be lazy then you can go back to your own house. The wife was beside herself. The pile of flax was so large that even with a hundred maids she would not have been able to spin it in two days. While she was standing there in desperation, a dwarf crept up to her.

He was dressed in red and wore a little crown on his head. He said, "Why are you so sad? What will you give me if I spin the flax? The wife did not answer, and the red dwarf continued, "I will spin the flax, but only under the condition that you guess my name within three tries. If you fail to do so, you will be mine and must come with me. In her desperation the wife said yes, and immediately there appeared countless little dwarfs, and they carried all the flax away until not a single strand was left behind.

That evening the gentleman returned home from hunting. Seeing his wife quiet and still, he thought that she must be tired from spinning. Before they went to bed he told her, "Just think about what happened to me today. When I was up on the mountain and it was just getting dark, I came to a split in the earth. I looked down and saw beneath me a large room where many hundreds of little devils were hurriedly spinning flax.

It was a joy to watch them. In the middle there stood a throne, and on it sat a dwarf dressed in red and wearing a little crown on his head.

He was continuously clicking his tongue and crying out: What will she do, what will she say, When tomorrow we take it to her? Then she will guess so and so. Then the wife became happy once again, and said, "Dear husband, my lord, what did the crazy dwarf say? The next morning the gentleman went hunting again. Then the red dwarf arrived with hundreds of little devils, who were carrying the flax, all finely and neatly spun, and not even a hair of it was missing.

Then the red dwarf approached the wife and said with a scornful smile, "Here is the flax. Now guess what my name is. Then she pretended to be thinking deeply and to have fallen into despair. He slapped her hard on the cheek, and then he and his little devils departed into the air with such a sound of whistling and rushing that it was like a windstorm in the fall swirling the dry leaves about and blowing them through the woods. When the gentleman arrived home that evening, his wife showed him the spun flax, and he was uncommonly satisfied.

Soon afterward he had an even larger pile of flax brought in and ordered his wife to spin it within a few days. She was beside herself, but then it occurred to her that she had an aunt who was an uncommonly sly and clever woman who had helped many a relative out of difficulty.

She went to her and told her of her troubles. When it was evening she took a dead hen, filled it with blood and grease, put it under her arm between her skin and her undershirt, and went to her niece.

She entered the room where the husband and wife were, and the latter approached her, saying, "Greetings, dear aunt. It is so good that you can visit us. The sly woman looked casually at the blood drops on the floor, then complained loudly, "Oh, my ailment! I have a large boil under my arm. That's where the blood is coming from. How it grieved my dear departed husband. I believe it was the cause of his early death. When the gentleman heard this he turned to his wife and said, "Listen, wife, you shall never touch another spindle.

I can no longer stand spinning! That was fine with her. From that time forth she had the best and the most comfortable life, and if she hasn't died, she is still living lazily forth. This story is from South Tyrol, an alpine region in northern Italy but with historical and cultural ties to Austria. This tale combines elements of three Aarne-Thompson types: The opening episodes where the girl follows her mother's orders literally, much to the mother's regrets, are reminiscent of type tales, where a master and a servant engage in similar conflicts.

The main body of the story, where the heroine gains control over a supernatural helper by discovering his name, is a type tale. The concluding episode, where a cunning old aunt convinces the heroine's husband that spinning will damage his wife's beauty, belongs to type He often did not know how he might still their hunger, and so he decided to lead his daughter into the forest and abandon her there. When he once again had nothing for himself or for his family to eat, and he could find no work, he took his child with him into the woods and left her in a beautiful forest meadow with the promise to return soon.

To deceive the child he tied a piece of wood to a tree with a string in such a way that the wind swung it back and forth. Hitting against the tree, it made a sound like someone chopping wood with an axe. The child was thus deceived. She looked for strawberries, played with flowers, and after a while fell asleep -- tired from all the running about. When she awoke the moon was already high in the sky, and her father had not yet come. The child began to cry fervently, then ran deeper into the forest looking for her father.

Suddenly she saw a little fire with a number of little pot-shaped containers standing nearby. Curiously, she ran up to them, laid some dry twigs on the fire, which was about to go out, and blew with all her strength in order to make it burn. Turning around, she saw a little man who was smiling at her good naturedly. He was entirely gray, and his white beard, which stuck out from his gray jacket in a strange manner, reached down over his chest.

The little girl was afraid and was about to run away, but the dwarf called her back. The child reluctantly obeyed. The old man stroked her cheeks and spoke in such a friendly manner that she lost all fear, and helped him with his cooking. The gray man asked her her name and who her father was. With tears in her eyes she told him, and he comforted her and told her she should stay with him and become his daughter. The child accepted, and the old man led her into his home. It was in a large hollow tree.

A pile of leaves served as his bed. The little man prepared a second bed so that the tired child could lie down and rest. The next morning the dwarf wakened the girl and said that he had to go away.

She was to take care of the house -- as he called the tree -- while he was away. He returned soon and showed her everything, teaching her to cook and to do the other household chores. Thus the day passed quickly, and night was there before she knew it.

They lived several years happily and contentedly, and the girl had grown up so much that was now nearly a head taller than her foster father. Then one evening he told her that it was now time for him to make preparations for her future. I was there and recommended you to her, and she is inclined to take you on. The next morning they went together to the castle. The maiden was introduced to the queen, and accepted by her.

She cordially took leave of her foster father, and he promised to visit her every Sunday. She had not worked there long before the young king, who had been waging war against another king, returned home victoriously. The young king was attracted to the girl and wanted to marry her. His mother, who also liked the maiden, gave her approval.

When the Gray Man -- as they called him at the castle -- came again to visit his daughter, the queen told him that her son would like to marry his daughter, that she had given her approval, and that it thus now up to him to express his wishes. The old man said sourly, "The king can marry my little daughter if and only if he can guess my name. As usual, he made a fire and began to cook. While he was cooking he hopped around the fire singing: The king was very concerned, and he sent out a servant to discover the old man's name.

The servant overheard the old man and rushed back to the castle. He told the name and was rewarded with many gold pieces. But he could not be talked into moving into the castle, and he continued to live, as before, in his tree.

October 2018